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APA 6TH Style Citation Guide: In-text Citations

APA In-text citation

In-text / parenthetical citation styles

In-text or parenthetical citations must be used when you include a direct quote, refer to, summarize, or paraphrase from another source. In-text or parenthetical citations must correspond to entries in your reference list.

The APA in-text citation style includes the author’s last name and the year of publication. For a direct quote, included the page number as well. APA does encourage the inclusion of a page number when paraphrasing or referring to an idea.  

Sources Without Named Persons as Authors

If a source has an organization as the author, rather than a named person as the author, use the name of the organization.

  •      According to the American Psychological Association (2018). 

Sources Without Page Numbers

Some electronic sources may not have page numbers. If such a source has numbered paragraphs, give the paragraph number with the abbreviation "para." (Hall, para. 5).

Sources with Dates

If there is no date, use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year.

Placement of Citations for Quoted Material

Page numbers for quoted material appear with the parenthetical citation following the abbreviation for page (p.). The placement of the parenthetical citation for a quote depends on the placement of the quoted material within the sentence:

If the quotation appears in midsentence, insert the final quotation mark, followed by the parenthetical citation; then complete the sentence.


Jones (1998) argues that “it's a good idea to use carrot cake to entice” (p. 7) the wild rabbits in order for them to become comfortable with the lab personnel.  

If the quotation appears at the end of the sentence, insert the final quotation mark, followed by the parenthetical citation and the end punctuation.


Jones (1998) argues that “it's a good idea to use carrot cake to entice” (p. 7).  

The study found that “carrot cake was more enticing to the wild rabbits” (Summer, Hoover, Smith, & O'Neil, 2009, p. 57).


Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.  

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