Below are examples of in-text citations.
One Author In-text
The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that….
Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy—the need for dialogue. N Engl J. Med. 346(17):1319-1320.
Multiple Works by the Same Author Different Years
Smith’s studies of arbovirus infections (Smith 1970, 1975) have shown that…
Smith CE. 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Introduction Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 64(4):481-482.
Smith CE. 1975. The significance of mosquito longevity and blood-feeding behavior in the dynamics of arbovirus infections. Med. Biol. 53(5):288-294.
Multiple Works by the Same Author Same Years
Cold hardiness in cereals (Andrews 1960a, 1960b) if affected by….
Andrews JE. 1960a. Cold hardiness of sprouting wheat is affected by duration of hardening and hardening temperature. Can J Plant Sci. 40(1):93-102.
Andrews JE 1960b. Cold hardening and cold hardiness of young winter rye seedlings as affected by stage of development and temperature. Can J Bot. 38(3):353-363.
Authors with Identical Surnames
Earlier commentary on animal experimentation (Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986) showed…
Dawson J. 1986. Animal experiments: conference report. BMJ. 292(6536):1654-1655.
Dawson M. 1986. Some examples of necessary continuation and possible discontinuation of animal experiments. Acta Physiol Scand Supl. 554:194-197.
…and the most recent work on albuterol administration (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) is the…
Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812-1817.
If both authors have the same surname, add their initials (Smith TL and Smith UV 1990).
If the reference has 3 or more, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” and the publication date. (Ito et al.. 1999)
Corporate or Organizations as Authors
The landmark report on legalized abortion (IOM 1975) was..
[IOM] Institute of Medicine (US). 1975. Legalized abortion and public health; report of a study by a committee of the Institute of Medicine. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences.
Citing an Indirect Source (Source Found in a Resource)
An author should never place in a reference list a document that he or she has not seen in its original form, but it obtained from another document. The author should find and cite the original article.