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CSE Scientific Style and Format: In-text Citation Examples

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Examples of in-text citations

Below are examples of in-text citations.

One Author  In-text

The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that….

Reference List

Fauci AS. 2002. Smallpox vaccination policy—the need for dialogue. N Engl J. Med. 346(17):1319-1320.



Multiple Works by the Same Author Different Years

 In-text reference:

 Smith’s studies of arbovirus infections (Smith 1970, 1975) have shown that…

 Reference list:

Smith CE. 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Introduction Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 64(4):481-482.

Smith CE. 1975. The significance of mosquito longevity and blood-feeding behavior in the dynamics of arbovirus infections. Med. Biol. 53(5):288-294.


Multiple Works by the Same Author Same Years

In-text reference:

Cold hardiness in cereals (Andrews 1960a, 1960b) if affected by….

Reference list:

Andrews JE. 1960a. Cold hardiness of sprouting wheat is affected by duration of hardening and hardening temperature. Can J Plant Sci. 40(1):93-102.

Andrews JE 1960b. Cold hardening and cold hardiness of young winter rye seedlings as affected by stage of development and temperature. Can J Bot. 38(3):353-363.

Authors with Identical Surnames

In-text reference:

Earlier commentary on animal experimentation (Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986) showed…

Reference list:

Dawson J. 1986. Animal experiments: conference report. BMJ. 292(6536):1654-1655.

Dawson M. 1986. Some examples of necessary continuation and possible discontinuation of animal experiments. Acta Physiol Scand Supl. 554:194-197.


Multiple Authors

 In-text reference:

 …and the most recent work on albuterol administration (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) is the…

Reference list:

Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812-1817.

If both authors have the same surname, add their initials (Smith TL and Smith UV 1990).

If the reference has 3 or more, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” and the publication date.  (Ito et al.. 1999)

 Corporate or Organizations as Authors

In-text reference:

The landmark report on legalized abortion (IOM 1975) was..

 Reference list:

[IOM] Institute of Medicine (US). 1975. Legalized abortion and public health; report of a study by a committee of the Institute of Medicine. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences.

 Citing an Indirect Source (Source Found in a Resource)

An author should never place in a reference list a document that he or she has not seen in its original form, but it obtained from another document. The author should find and cite the original article.



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