Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

MLA Style Citation Guide 8th Edition for Graduate Programs: How to Format in-text Citations

Citation Methods

MLA (Modern Language Association) format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.

The MLA manual states that you should include the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken. This information must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.

Below are examples of in-text citations.


 

Author's Name in Text

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).


Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Author's Name in Reference

 
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 By Title - No Known Author

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Citing Authors with the Same Last Names

Although some medical atheists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Citing a Work by Two Authors

Smith and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).


The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith and Moore 76).


Citing a Work by Three or More Authors

Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).


The authors stated that "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith et al, 76).


Citing a Corporate Author

Use the name of the corporate author followed by the page number.  (Modern Language Association 77).

In some instances it may be better to include a long name in the text, allowing a better flow for the reader. The Modern Language Association now requires a URL to be included in a citation (79). 

Commonly used abbreviations can be used in place of the complete name. While creating this guide I discovered that the MLA no longer required the documentation of URLs (79).

The Zika virus "is no longer a threat" (United States, Dept. of Health and Human Service 152).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Citing an Indirect Source (Source Found in a Resource)

Whenever possible you should take material from the original source, not the secondary source. When this is not possible use the following format. Remember to consult with a reference librarian to see if the original source can be located.

If what you quote or paraphrase is a quotation, use the abbreviation qtd. in before the indirect source you cite in the parenthetical reference.

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an "extraordinary man" (qtd. in Bowsell 2:450).

You would list the secondary source in your Works Cited list. In the above example Bowswell is the secondary source, the "2" is the volume number.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Citing the Bible

The first time you cite include the version/edition consulted.

Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

In subsequent citations of the same version/edition you only need to provide the book, chapter and verse.

Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (Ezek. 1.5-10).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Interviews

One World War II veteran who entered Nagasaki after the atomic bombing noted that the city “had a stark look, a gray cast over everything” (Schade interview).

She confirmed that she will not participate in the teachers' strike (Thompson).

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Tweet

In the main text of the paper, a tweet is cited in its entirety.

USA Today noted that Target tweeded “No longer "boys' toys" and "girls' toys." Just toys. Target ditches gender-based signs.”

Or

Target will no longer display toys by gender, “No longer "boys' toys" and "girls' toys." Just toys” (USA Today).


Some of the above examples were taken from the OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab.

How to Cite in a Slide Presentation

The MLA 8th suggested that the presenter should include a brief citation on each slide that uses borrowed materials and add a works cited-list on a slide at the end of the presentation. Another suggest is offer a printed works cited list to the audience, or post the list online and offer the URL on your works-cited slide (MLA 128).

 

libguide_footer
Login to LibApps Noice of Web Accessibility