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CRM 120 Critical Introduction to Criminal Justice: Article Types

Scholary? Peer Reviewed? Professional Literature? What is the Difference?

Scholarly Journals

Articles published in scholarly journals are written by researchers who are experts in their field. People who write for academic journals are employed by colleges, universities, or other institutions of education or research. They submit articles to the editors of the journals, who decide whether or not to publish the article.

Peer-Review Journals

These are the most prestigious academic journals. Articles are subject to the peer-review process. They must be reviewed by several experts before they are accepted for publication. These experts suggest possible changes and recommend to the editor of the journal whether or not to publish the article.   

Professional Literature

Articles are written by people working in the field. Articles cover news in the field, brief reports on research and articles about trends. Most publications will have letters to the editor, opinion pieces and advertisement focused on that particular trade, occupation or area of interest. In Criminology the following journals are considered professional literature.

Example of Primary Research Article

Primary research is usually first presented in an academic journal. The authors report on the process and results of their primary research. The article is divided into sections and should include; introduction, literature review, methods, and materials, results, conclusions/discussion and references.  Sometimes the sections have slightly different names.  Primary articles tend to be more complex than other types of literature, but the abstract can help give you a general understanding of what will follow in the article. 

Below is an example of a journal article. Please click on image for the full text of the article.

 

 

A journal article will display the title of the journal, the volume, the pages and the date on the first page. The location of this information varies by publisher. The more recent article may include a DOI (digital object identifier).

(Miller, 2016)

Reference List entry double space and hanging indent.

Miller, R. G. (2016).  Exploring the effect of exposer to short-term solitary confinement among violent prison inmates. Journal of  Quantitative Criminology, 32(1), 1-22. doi:org/10.1007/s10940-015-9250-0572-579

 

Example of a Review Article

Review articles are another type of article appearing in a scholarly journal. Rather than reporting on original research, as a primary research article, a review article reports on the current state of knowledge about a topic, by presenting recent research about the topic. 

Below is an example of a literature review. Please click on image for the full text of the article.

 

 

A journal article will display the title of the journal, the volume, the pages and the date on the first page. The location of this information varies by publisher. The more recent article may include a DOI (digital object identifier).

(Smith, 2006)

Reference List entry double spaced with hanging indent.

Smith, P. S. (2006). The effects of solitary confinement on prison inmates: A brief history and review of the literature. Crime and  Justice, 34(1), 441-528. doi:10.1086/500626  

 

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