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Chicago 17th: Books: Books and eBooks

Format of Footnote

FOOTNOTE FORMAT 

Footnotes go at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs. 

Within the essay text: put the note number at the end of the sentence where the reference occurs, even if the cited material is mentioned at the beginning of the sentence. 

The note number goes after all other punctuation. 

Be sure to use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) not Roman (i, ii, iii). 

Single space each entry; double space between entries. 

Indent the first line of each note. 

Never reuse a number - use a new number for each reference, even if you have used that reference previously. 

Use a shortened form examples for sources you refer to more than once. 

To cite multiple sources in a single note, separate the two citations with a semicolon. Never use two note numbers at the end of a sentence. 

CHICAGO Books and eBooks

ONE AUTHOR  

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp. 

FOOTNOTE  

1. Thomas G. West, Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), 99-100. 

 

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name Initial. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

West, Thomas G. Vindicating the Founders: Race, Sex, Class, and Justice in the Origins of America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.  


TWO TO THREE AUTHORS   

PATTERN

#. Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name and Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp.

FOOTNOTE

2. Ralph D. Ellis and Carol S. Ellis, Theories of Criminal Justice: A Critical Reappraisal (Wolfeboro, NH: Longwood Academic, 1989), 52.

 

PATTERN

Author’s Last Name, First Name Initial., and Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

BIBLIOGRAPHY   

Elis, Ralph D., and Carol S. Ellis. Theories of Criminal Justice: A Critical Reappraisal. Wolfeboro, NH: Longwood Academic, 1989.


FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS  

PATTERN

#. Author’s First Name Last Name et al., Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp.

FOOTNOTE

7. Stewart Hall et al., Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), pp.

 

PATTERN

Author’s Last Name, First Name, Author’s First Name Last Name, Author’s First Name Last Name, Author’s First Name Last Name and Author’s First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hall, Steward, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke and Brian Roberts. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

CHAPTER IN A SINGLE AUTHORED BOOK  

PATTERN

#. Author’s First Name. Last Name, “Title of Chapter,” in Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp-pp.

FOOTNOTE

3. Brendan Phibbs, “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle,” in The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987), 117–63.

PATTERN

Author’s Last Name, First. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, pp. – pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Phibbs, Brendan. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a Battle.” In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117–63. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.


CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK

PATTERN

#. Entry Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Chapter,” in Title of Book, ed. First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), page.

FOOTNOTE

Aaron Brenner, “Rank-and-File Struggles at the Telephone Company,” in Rebel Rank and File: Labor Militancy and Revolt from Below during the Long 1970s, ed. Aaron Brenner, Robert Brenner, and Cal Winslow (London: Verso, 2010), 253.

PATTERN

Entry Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of Book, edited by First Name Last Name, pp.-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brenner, Aaron. “Rank-and-File Struggles at the Telephone Company.” In Rebel Rank and File: Labor Militancy and Revolt from Below during the Long 1970s, edited by Aaron Brenner, Robert Brenner, and Cal Winslow,  251-279. London: Verso, 2010.  


EDITOR OR TRANSLATOR IN ADDITION TO AUTHOR  

PATTERN 

#. Author's First Name Last Name, Title of Book, ed. First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date). 

FOOTNOTE 

#. May Swenson, Collected Poems, ed. Langdon Hammer (New York: The Library of America, 2013).  

PATTERN 

Author's Last Name, First Name, Title of Book, ed. First Name Last Name. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Swenson, May. Collected Poems. Edited by Langdon Hammer. New York: The Library of America, 2013.

Books and other document that are no longer in copyright are often freely available online. When possible use a scanned page version of the source for the purposes of source citation. The scanned page version may be more authoritative by including the original title and copyright pages in addition to having fixed page numbers.  

FREE ONLINE  -  PROJECT GUTENBERG, INTERNET ARCHIVES  

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Original place of publication information date; Web Site, Year of reprint), p., URL. 
FOOTNOTE 

1. James Cook, Captain Cook's Journal during the First Voyage Round the World Made on H. M. Bark “Endeavour” 1786-71 (London:  1893; Project Gutenberg, 2005), 37, https://ia800209.us.archive.org/20/items/cihm_14800/cihm_14800.pdf. 

 
PATTERN 
Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Original publication information, date; Web Site, Year of Reprint. Web Site, Year of reprint. URL. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Cook, James. Captain Cook's Journal during the First Voyage Round the World Made on H. M. Bark “Endeavour” 1786-71. London: Elliot Stock, 1893; Project Gutenberg, 2005. https://ia800209.us.archive.org/20/items/cihm_14800/cihm_14800.pdf. 


BOOK FROM A WEB SITE - SCANNED ORIGINAL BOOK  

PATTERN 

#. Author First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), pp, http://www.xxx.www. 

FOOTNOTE 

1. Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (Brooklyn: NY, 1855), 22, http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html. 

PATTERN 

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date. http://www.xxx.www.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. Brooklyn: NY, 1855. http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html. 

This book did not identify the publisher, but should be included if available. 

BOOK FROM DATABASE SUCH AS eBRARY

PATTERN

#. Author’s First Name Last Name. Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), pp. Name of Database.

FOOTNOTE

9. William R. Blackbum. The Sustainability Handbook: The Complete Management Guide to Achieving Social, Economic and Environmental Responsibility (London: Eastscan, 2007), 67. eBrary.  

PATTERN

Author’s First Last, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.  Name of Database.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blackbum, William R. The Sustainability Handbook: The Complete Management Guide to Achieving Social, Economic and Environmental Responsibility. London: Eastscan, 2007. eBrary.

AUTHORED ENTRY  

PATTERN

#. Entry Author's First Name Last Name. "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), pp, Name of Database.

FOOTNOTE

5. E. P. Sanders, "Paul between Judaism and Hellenism," in St. Paul among the Philosophers, ed. John D. Caputo and Linda Marta­n Alcoff (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009) p, ProQuest Ebook Central.

PATTERN

Entry Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by editor's First Name Last Name, pp-pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Name of Database.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sanders, E. P. "Paul between Judaism and Hellenism." In St. Paul among the Philosophers, edited by John D. Caputo and Linda Marta­n Alcoff, 74-90. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central.

PATTERN

#. Title of Book, edition. s.v., “entry title.”

FOOTNOTE

1. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., s.v. “noon.”  

The facts of publication are often omitted, but the edition (if not the first) must be specified. References to an alphabetically arranged work cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (sub verbo, “under the word”; pl. s.vv.) CMOS section 14.247

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Well know reference books such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. 


WIKIPEDIA  

PATTERN

#. Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry," last modified date, time, URL.

FOOTNOTE

22. Wikipedia, s.v. "Tango," last modified July 21, 2018, 11:50, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tango.

Online reference works are normally cited in the notes rather than in bibliographies. (CMOS 14.233)

PRINT REFERENCE BOOK WITH AUTHORED ENTRY  

PATTERN

#. Entry Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, “Title of Entry,” in Title of Book, ed. Editor’s First Name Initial. Last Name and First Name Initial. Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp.

FOOTNOTE

10. Melissa Isaacson “Bulls,” in Encyclopedia of Chicago, ed. Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman (Chicago: Historical Society, 2005), 52-53.

PATTERN

Entry Author’s Last Name, First Name, Initial. “Title of Entry.” In Title of Book, edited by Editor’s First Name Initial. Last Name, pp. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Isaacson, Melissa. “Bulls.” In Encyclopedia of Chicago, edited by Janice L. Reiff, Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman, 52-53. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 2005.


AUTHORED ENTRY – ONLINE

PATTERN

#. Entry author's First Name Last Name, "Title of Entry," In Title of Book, Publisher, Year of first volume-. Article published date; date last modified, URL.

FOOTNOTE

25. D. C. Phillips and Siegel, Harvey, "Philosophy of Education," in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 1997-. Article published February 14, 2006; last modified December 15, 2015, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/education-philosophy/>.  
 

PATTERN

Entry author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Book. Publisher, Year of first volume-. Date when article first posted; date last modified. URL.
 
BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Phillips, D.C. and Siegel, Harvey. "Philosophy of Education." In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Standford University, 1997-. Article published February 14, 2006; last modified December 15, 2015. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/education-philosophy/>.  

In this example the date after the publisher is given because the work is not completed. This is the date of the first. 

PATTERN

#. Book. Chapter: verse (version of Bible)    

FOOTNOTE

1. Cor. 13:1-13 (King James)

2. Koran 19:17-21

BIBLIOGRAPHY

References to the Jewish or Christian scriptures usually appear in text citations or notes rather than in bibliographies.  

 

EXAMPLES OF ARRANGEMENT OF AUTHORS

Authors’ names are arrange is the following format for both books and journal entries.

Use “an,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries.

One author

Footnote
Joseph Callahan,

Bibliography 
Callahan, Joseph.

 

Two to Three Authors

Footnote
Mary Callahan and Fred Silver,

Bibliography 
Callahan, Mary and Fred Silver.

 

Four to Ten Authors

In the bibliography write out all of the authors, in the notes only write out the first author plus “et al".
Footnote
Charles F. Curley et al.,

Bibliography
Curley, Charles F., Mary Joan Smith, Christopher Kendris, Jennifer Burns, and Heather Pearson.


EDITIONS  OTHER THAN FIRST

When an edition other than the first is used or cited, the number or description of the edition follows the title in the listing.

An edition number usually appears on the title page. Such wording as Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged is abbreviated in notes and bibliographies simply as 2nd ed.; Revised Edition (with no number) is abbreviated as rev. ed.

Any volume number mentioned follows the edition number.  

CMOS (sec. 14.118)

PATTERN

#. Author’s First Name Last Name, Title of Book, edition. (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pp.-pp.

FOOTNOTE

3. Deborah Cameron, Feminism and Linguistic Theory, 2nd ed. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), 62-63.  

PATTERN

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cameron, Deborah. Feminism and Linguistic Theory. 2nd ed. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1992.

PATTERN

#. Author of original source First Name Last Name, Title of Original Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), p, quoted in Author’s First Name Last Name of secondary source, Title of Secondary Source (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), p.  

FOOTNOTE

8. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (New York: Random House, 1965), 813, quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of the Modern Economics: The Lives and Ideas of Great Thinkers (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), 6.  

PATTERN

Author of original source Last Name, First Name. Title of Original Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. P. Quoted in Author’s First Name Last Name of secondary source, Title of Secondary Source. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations. New York: Random House, 1965. 813. Quoted in Mark Skousen, The Making of the Modern Economics: The Lives and Ideas of Great Thinkers. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001.

CMOS discourages using a secondary (indirect) source. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.  

Please see Reference librarian for assistance.

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