Skip to main content

Chicago 17th: Journals: Journals

Format of Footnote

FOOTNOTE FORMAT 

Footnotes go at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs. 

Within the essay text: put the note number at the end of the sentence where the reference occurs, even if the cited material is mentioned at the beginning of the sentence. 

The note number goes after all other punctuation. 

Be sure to use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) not Roman (i, ii, iii). 

Single space each entry; double space between entries. 

Indent the first line of each note. 

Never reuse a number - use a new number for each reference, even if you have used that reference previously. 

Use a shortened form examples for sources you refer to more than once. 

To cite multiple sources in a single note, separate the two citations with a semicolon. Never use two note numbers at the end of a sentence. 

CHICAGO Journal Articles

For a source consulted via a library or other commercial bibliographic database and available only through a subscription or library account, it may be best to name the database in lieu of a URL.  (CMOS 14.11)

The CMOS states that a DOI, if it is available, is preferable to a URL. If using a URL, use the address that appears in your browser’s address bar when viewing the article (or the abstract) unless a shorter, more stable form of the URL is offered along with the electronic article. (14.184) 


INCLUDING NAME OF DATABASE

PATTERN
Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, Issues Number (Date): pp, Title of Database.


FOOTNOTE
4. Vybarr Cregan-Reid, “Water Defences: "The Arts of Swimming" in Nineteenth-Century Culture,” Critical Survey 16, no. 3 (2004): 34, Project Muse.  

PATTERN

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, Issues Number (Date): pp, Title of Database.

BIBLIOGRAPHY  
Cregan-Reid, Vybarr. “Water Defences: "The Arts of Swimming" in Nineteenth-Century Culture.” Critical Survey 16, no. 3 (2004): 34, Project Muse. 


STABLE URL 

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Year): p., stable URL.  

FOOTNOTE 

4. Vybarr Cregan-Reid, “Water Defences: "The Arts of Swimming" in Nineteenth-Century Culture,” Critical Survey 16, no. 3 (2004): 34, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41557287.  

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Year): pp.–pp. stable URL.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Cregan-Reid, Vybarr. “Water Defences: "The Arts of Swimming" in Nineteenth-Century Culture.” Critical Survey 16, no. 3 (2004): 34-47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41557287. 


INCLUDING A DOI 

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Month if given Year): pp. doi. 

FOOTNOTE 

22. Paul R. Deslandes, "Curing Mind and Body in the Heart of the Canadian Rockies: Empire, Sexual Scandal and the Reclamation of Masculinity, 1880s–1920s," Gender & History 21, no. 2 (August 2009): 360, doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0424.2009.01553.x. 

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Month if given Year): pp.-pp. doi. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Deslandes, Paul R. "Curing Mind and Body in the Heart of the Canadian Rockies: Empire, Sexual Scandal and the Reclamation of Masculinity, 1880s–1920s." Gender & History 21, no. 2 (August 2009): 358-379. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0424.2009.01553.x. 

 

 

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Year): p, doi: or URL. 
 
FOOTNOTE 

6. Alan W. McConnachie, “The Observed Properties of Dwarf Galaxies in and Around the Local Group,” The Astronomical Journal 144, no. 4 (2012): 3, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/144/1/4. 

7. Toby Terrar, “Red Paradise: A Long Life in the San Diego Communist Movement,” The Journal of San Diego History 60, no. 3 (2004): 150, http://www.sandiegohistory.org/sites/defalut/files/journal/v60-3/v60-3terrar.pdf.  


PATTERN 

Author’s Last, First Name, Initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Year): pp.-pp. doi: or URL. 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

McConnachie, Alan W. “The Observed Properties of Dwarf Galaxies in and Around the Local Group.” The Astronomical Journal 144, no. 4 (2012): 1-36. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/144/1/4. 

Toby Terrar, Tobby. “Red Paradise: A Long Life in the San Diego Communist Movement.” The Journal of San Diego History 60, no. 3 (2004), 145-180. http://www.sandiegohistory.org/sites/default/files/journal/v60-3/v60-3terrar.pdf. 

ONE AUTHOR  

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): p. 

FOOTNOTE 

6. Amy Powel, “A Point ‘Ceaselessly Pushed Back’: The Origin of Early Netherlandish Painting,” Art Bulletin 8, no. 4 (2006): 708.  

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): pp-pp. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Powel, Amy. “A Point ‘Ceaselessly Pushed Back’: The Origin of Early Netherlandish Painting.” Art Bulletin 8, no. 4 (2006): 707-728. 


TWO TO THREE AUTHORS  

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name and Author’s First Name Initial Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): p. 

FOOTNOTE  

7. Jessie P. H. Poon and Christine A. Lai, “Why are Non-profit Performing Arts Organizations Successful in Mid-sized US Cities?” Urban Studies 45, no. 11 (2008): 2274. 

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name Initial. and Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): pp-pp. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Poon, Jessie P. H. and Christine A. Lai. “Why are Non-profit Performing Arts Organizations Successful in Mid-sized US Cities?” Urban Studies 45, no. 11 (2008): 2273-2289. 


FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS  

PATTERN 

#. Author’s First Name Initial Last Name et al., “Title of Article,” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): p. 

FOOTNOTE 

7. Kautto, Jesse et al., "Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production." Bioresources 9, no. 4 (November 2014): 6041-6072. 

PATTERN 

Author’s Last Name, First Name Initial., Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name, and Author’s First Name Initial. Last Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume, issue no. (Year): pp-pp. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Kautto, Jesse, Matthew J. Realff, Arthur J. Ragauskas, and Tuomo Kassi. "Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production." Bioresources 9, no. 4 (November 2014): 6041-6072. 

PATTERN

#. Reviewer’s First Name, Initial. Last Name, review of Title of Book, by book Author’s First Name Last Name, Title of Journal Volume, issue no. (Year): p.

FOOTNOTE

9. Peter S. Carmichael, review of Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South, by Stephanie McCurry, Civil War History 57, no. 3 (2011): 275.  

PATTERN

Reviewer’s Last Name, First Name, Initial. Review of Title of Book, by book Author’s First Name Last Name. Journal Title Volume, issue no. (Year): pp.-pp.  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Carmichael, Peter S. Review of Confederate Reckoning: Power and Politics in the Civil War South, by Stephanie McCurry. Civil War History 57, no. 3 (2011): 274-277.

 
 

The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation and is not italicized. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be preceded by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.

From the OWL -  Prude Writing Lab

 

 

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is like a social security number for a document online. It’s a unique and permanent identifier that will take you straight to a document no matter where it’s located on the Internet.

You can Google a DOI to find an article, although you may still have to sift through search results. To go straight to the source, you can also consult a DOI resolver, such as the one supplied by CrossRef.org.

The DOI should be listed prominently on the first page of an article, whether in print or online. If you’re working online, copy and paste it into your reference list, to avoid transcription errors. Do not alter the alphanumeric DOI string in any way.

The CMOS suggests that if a URL or DOI has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. (14.12)

libguide_footer
Login to LibApps Noice of Web Accessibility